Category: moon

Regular

Hostile and Closed Environments, Hazards at Cl…

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

A spacecraft is not only a home,
it’s also a machine. NASA understands that the ecosystem inside a vehicle plays
a big role in everyday astronaut life.

Important habitability factors
include temperature, pressure, lighting, noise, and quantity of space. It’s
essential that astronauts are getting the requisite food, sleep and exercise
needed to stay healthy and happy. The space environment introduces challenges
not faced on Earth.

Technology, as often is the case
with out-of-this-world exploration, comes to the rescue! Technology plays a big
role in creating a habitable home in a harsh environment and monitoring some of
the environmental conditions.

Astronauts are also asked to
provide feedback about their living environment, including physical impressions
and sensations so that the evolution of spacecraft can continue addressing the
needs of humans in space.

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including hostile and closed environments, like
the closed environment of the vehicle itself. To learn more, and find out what
NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of hostile and closed environments with Brian
Crucian, NASA immunologist at the Johnson Space Center.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Regular

What’s Up For September 2018?

Outstanding views Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars with the naked eye!

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You’ll have to look quickly after sunset to catch Venus. And through binoculars or a telescope, you’ll see Venus’s phase change dramatically during September – from nearly half phase to a larger thinner crescent!

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Jupiter, Saturn and Mars continue their brilliant appearances this month. Look southwest after sunset.

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Use the summer constellations help you trace the Milky Way.

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Sagittarius: where stars and some brighter clumps appear as steam from the teapot.

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Aquila: where the Eagle’s bright Star Altair, combined with Cygnus’s Deneb, and Lyra’s Vega mark the Summer Triangle. 

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Cassiopeia, the familiar “w”- shaped constellation completes the constellation trail through the Summer Milky Way. Binoculars will reveal double stars, clusters and nebulae. 

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Between September 12th and the 20th, watch the Moon pass from near Venus, above Jupiter, to the left of Saturn and finally above Mars! 

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Both Neptune and brighter Uranus can be spotted with some help from a telescope this month.

Look at about 1:00 a.m. local time or later in the southeastern sky. You can find Mercury just above Earth’s eastern horizon shortly before sunrise. Use the Moon as your guide on September 7 and 8th.

And although there are no major meteor showers in September, cometary dust appears in another late summer sight, the morning Zodiacal light. Try looking for it in the east on moonless mornings very close to sunrise. To learn more about the Zodiacal light, watch “What’s Up” from March 2018.

Watch the full What’s Up for September Video: 

There are so many sights to see in the sky. To stay informed, subscribe to our What’s Up video series on Facebook.

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Gravity, Hazard of Alteration

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

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The variance of gravity fields that
astronauts will encounter on a mission to Mars is the fourth hazard.

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On Mars, astronauts would need to
live and work in three-eighths of Earth’s gravitational pull for up to two
years. Additionally, on the six-month trek between the planets, explorers will
experience total weightlessness. 

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Besides Mars and deep space there
is a third gravity field that must be considered. When astronauts finally
return home they will need to readapt many of the systems in their bodies to
Earth’s gravity.

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To further complicate the problem,
when astronauts transition from one gravity field to another, it’s usually
quite an intense experience. Blasting off from the surface of a planet or a
hurdling descent through an atmosphere is many times the force of gravity.

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Research is being conducted to
ensure that astronauts stay healthy before, during and after their mission.
Specifically researchers study astronauts’
vision, fine motor skills, fluid distribution, exercise protocols and response to
pharmaceuticals.

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Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including gravity. To learn more, and find out
what NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast
,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of gravity with Peter
Norsk,
Senior Research Director/ Element Scientist at
the Johnson Space Center.

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Distance: Hazard Far From Home

A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount
of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human
Research Program
has
organized some of the hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis
into five classifications.

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The third and perhaps most apparent hazard is, quite
simply, the distance.

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Rather than a three-day lunar trip, astronauts would
be leaving our planet for roughly three years. Facing a communication delay of
up to 20 minutes one way and the possibility of equipment failures or a medical
emergency, astronauts must be capable of confronting an array of situations
without support from their fellow team on Earth.

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Once you burn your engines for Mars, there is no
turning back so planning and self-sufficiency are essential keys to a
successful Martian mission. The Human Research Program is studying and
improving food formulation, processing, packaging and preservation systems.

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While International Space Station expeditions serve as
a rough foundation for the expected impact on planning logistics for such a
trip, the data isn’t always comparable, but it is a key to the solution.

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Exploration to the Moon and Mars
will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including distance
from Earth. To learn more, and find out what our Human Research
Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards
of Human Spaceflight
" website. Or,
check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of distance with Erik Antonsen, the
Assistant Director for Human Systems Risk
Management at the Johnson Space Center.

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Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com. 

Isolation, Hazard of the Mind

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human Research Program has organized hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications. (View the first hazard). Let’s dive into the second hazard:

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Overcoming the second hazard, isolation and confinement, is essential for a successful mission to Mars. Behavioral issues among groups of people crammed in a small space over a long period of time, no matter how well trained they are, are inevitable. It is a topic of study and discussion currently taking place around the selection and composition of crews.

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On Earth, we have the luxury of picking up our cell phones and instantly being connected with nearly everything and everyone around us. 

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On a trip to Mars, astronauts will be more isolated and confined than we can imagine. 

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Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization (getting out of sync), and work overload compound this issue and may lead to performance decrements or decline, adverse health outcomes, and compromised mission objectives.

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To address this hazard, methods for monitoring behavioral health and adapting/refining various tools and technologies for use in the spaceflight environment are being developed to detect and treat early risk factors. Research is also being conducted in workload and performance, light therapy for circadian alignment or internal clock alignment, and team cohesion.

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Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including isolation and confinement. To learn more, and find out what the Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight” website. Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan further dives into the threat of isolation and confinement with Tom Williams, a NASA Human Factors and Behavior Performance Element Scientist at the Johnson Space Center. 

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Space Radiation: Hazard of Stealth

A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human Research Program has organized hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

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The first hazard of a human mission to Mars is also the most difficult to visualize because, well, space radiation is invisible to the human eye. Radiation is not only stealthy, but considered one of the most menacing of the five hazards.

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Above Earth’s natural protection, radiation exposure increases cancer risk, damages the central nervous system, can alter cognitive function, reduce motor function and prompt behavioral changes. To learn what can happen above low-Earth orbit, we study how radiation affects biological samples using a ground-based research laboratory.

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Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including radiation. To learn more, and find out what our Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight” website or check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which our host Gary Jordan further dives into the threat of radiation with Zarana Patel, a radiation lead scientist at the Johnson Space Center.

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Get to Know the 9 Astronauts Set to #LaunchAme…

Our Commercial Crew Program is
working with the American aerospace industry to develop and operate a
new generation of spacecraft to carry astronauts

to and from low-Earth orbit!

As we prepare to launch humans from American soil for the first time since the final space shuttle mission in 2011, get to know the astronauts who will fly with Boeing and SpaceX

as members of our commercial crew!

Bob
Behnken

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Bob Behnken

served as Chief of the NASA Astronaut Office from July 2012 to July
2015, where he was responsible for flight assignments, mission preparation, on-orbit
support of International Space Station crews and organization of astronaut
office support for future launch vehicles. Learn more about Bob

Eric Boe

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Eric
Boe first dreamed of being an astronaut at age 5 after his parents woke him up to
watch Neil Armstrong take his first steps onto the lunar surface. Learn more
about Eric
.

 Josh
Cassada 

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Josh Cassada  holds a Master of Arts Degree and a Doctorate in Physics with a
specialty in high energy particle physics from the University of Rochester, in
Rochester, New York. He was selected as a NASA astronaut in 2013, and his first
spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial Crew Program. Learn more about
Josh
.

Chris Ferguson

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Chris
Ferguson served as a Navy pilot before becoming a NASA astronaut, and was
commander aboard Atlantis for the final space shuttle flight, as part of the
same crew as Doug Hurley. He retired from NASA in 2011 and has been an integral
part of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner program. Learn more about Chris

Victor
Glover

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Victor Glover was selected as a NASA astronaut in 2013 while working as a Legislative Fellow in the United States Senate. His first spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial Crew Program. Learn more about Victor. 

Mike
Hopkins

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Mike Hopkins

was a top flight test engineer at the United States Air Force Test
Pilot School. He also studied political science at the Università degli Studi
di Parma in Parma, Italy, in 2005, and became a NASA astronaut in 2009. Learn
more about Mike
.

Doug Hurley

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In
2009, Doug Hurley was one of the record-breaking 13 people living on the space
station at the same time. In 2011, he served as the pilot on Atlantis during the
final space shuttle mission, delivering supplies and spare parts to the
International Space Station. Now, he will be one of the first people to launch
from the U.S. since that last shuttle mission. Learn more about Doug.

Nicole Mann

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Nicole
Mann is a Naval Aviator and a test pilot in the F/A-18 Hornet. She was selected
as a NASA astronaut in 2013, and her first spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial
Crew Program. Learn more about Nicole.

Suni
Williams 

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Suni Williams

has completed 7 spacewalks, totaling 50 hours and 40 minutes. She’s
also known for running. In April 2007, Suni ran the first marathon in space,
the Boston Marathon, in 4 hours and 24 minutes. Learn more about Suni.

Boeing and SpaceX are scheduled to complete their crew flight tests in mid-2019 and April 2019, respectively. Once enabled, commercial transportation to and from the
International Space Station will empower more station use, more research time and more
opportunities to understand and overcome the challenges of living in space, which is critical for us to create a sustainable
presence on the Moon and carry out missions deeper into the solar system, including Mars! 

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What’s Up For August 2018?

The summer Perseids are here! 

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The Perseid meteor shower is the best of the year! It peaks on a Moonless summer night from 4 p.m. EST on August 12 until 4 a.m. EST on August 13.

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Because the new Moon falls near the peak night, the days before and after the peak will also provide nice, dark skies. Your best window of observation is from a few hours after twilight until dawn, on the days surrounding the peak.

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Unlike most meteor showers, which have a short peak of high meteor rates, the Perseids have a very broad peak, as Earth takes more than three weeks to plow through the wide trail of cometary dust from comet Swift-Tuttle.

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The Perseids appear to radiate from the constellation Perseus, visible in the northern sky soon after sunset this time of year. Observers in mid-northern latitudes will have the best views.

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You should be able to see some meteors from July 17 to August 24, with the rates increasing during the weeks before August 12 and decreasing after August 13.

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Observers should be able to see between 60 and 70 per hour at the peak. Remember, you don’t have to look directly at the constellation to see them. You can look anywhere you want to-even directly overhead.

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Meteor showers like the Perseids are caused by streams of meteoroids hitting Earth’s atmosphere. The particles were once part of their parent comet-or, in some cases, from an asteroid.

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The parade of planets Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars–and the Milky Way continue to grace the evening sky, keeping you and the mosquitoes company while you hunt for meteors.

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Watch the full What’s Up for August Video: 

There are so many sights to see in the sky. To stay informed, subscribe to our What’s Up video series on Facebook.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com