Category: mars

Hostile and Closed Environments, Hazards at Cl…

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

A spacecraft is not only a home,
it’s also a machine. NASA understands that the ecosystem inside a vehicle plays
a big role in everyday astronaut life.

Important habitability factors
include temperature, pressure, lighting, noise, and quantity of space. It’s
essential that astronauts are getting the requisite food, sleep and exercise
needed to stay healthy and happy. The space environment introduces challenges
not faced on Earth.

Technology, as often is the case
with out-of-this-world exploration, comes to the rescue! Technology plays a big
role in creating a habitable home in a harsh environment and monitoring some of
the environmental conditions.

Astronauts are also asked to
provide feedback about their living environment, including physical impressions
and sensations so that the evolution of spacecraft can continue addressing the
needs of humans in space.

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including hostile and closed environments, like
the closed environment of the vehicle itself. To learn more, and find out what
NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of hostile and closed environments with Brian
Crucian, NASA immunologist at the Johnson Space Center.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Gravity, Hazard of Alteration

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

image

The variance of gravity fields that
astronauts will encounter on a mission to Mars is the fourth hazard.

image

On Mars, astronauts would need to
live and work in three-eighths of Earth’s gravitational pull for up to two
years. Additionally, on the six-month trek between the planets, explorers will
experience total weightlessness. 

image

Besides Mars and deep space there
is a third gravity field that must be considered. When astronauts finally
return home they will need to readapt many of the systems in their bodies to
Earth’s gravity.

image

To further complicate the problem,
when astronauts transition from one gravity field to another, it’s usually
quite an intense experience. Blasting off from the surface of a planet or a
hurdling descent through an atmosphere is many times the force of gravity.

image

Research is being conducted to
ensure that astronauts stay healthy before, during and after their mission.
Specifically researchers study astronauts’
vision, fine motor skills, fluid distribution, exercise protocols and response to
pharmaceuticals.

image

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including gravity. To learn more, and find out
what NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast
,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of gravity with Peter
Norsk,
Senior Research Director/ Element Scientist at
the Johnson Space Center.

image

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Distance: Hazard Far From Home

A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount
of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human
Research Program
has
organized some of the hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis
into five classifications.

image

The third and perhaps most apparent hazard is, quite
simply, the distance.

image
image

Rather than a three-day lunar trip, astronauts would
be leaving our planet for roughly three years. Facing a communication delay of
up to 20 minutes one way and the possibility of equipment failures or a medical
emergency, astronauts must be capable of confronting an array of situations
without support from their fellow team on Earth.

image

Once you burn your engines for Mars, there is no
turning back so planning and self-sufficiency are essential keys to a
successful Martian mission. The Human Research Program is studying and
improving food formulation, processing, packaging and preservation systems.

image
image

While International Space Station expeditions serve as
a rough foundation for the expected impact on planning logistics for such a
trip, the data isn’t always comparable, but it is a key to the solution.

image

Exploration to the Moon and Mars
will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including distance
from Earth. To learn more, and find out what our Human Research
Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards
of Human Spaceflight
" website. Or,
check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of distance with Erik Antonsen, the
Assistant Director for Human Systems Risk
Management at the Johnson Space Center.

image


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com. 

Isolation, Hazard of the Mind

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human Research Program has organized hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications. (View the first hazard). Let’s dive into the second hazard:

image

Overcoming the second hazard, isolation and confinement, is essential for a successful mission to Mars. Behavioral issues among groups of people crammed in a small space over a long period of time, no matter how well trained they are, are inevitable. It is a topic of study and discussion currently taking place around the selection and composition of crews.

image

On Earth, we have the luxury of picking up our cell phones and instantly being connected with nearly everything and everyone around us. 

image

On a trip to Mars, astronauts will be more isolated and confined than we can imagine. 

image

Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization (getting out of sync), and work overload compound this issue and may lead to performance decrements or decline, adverse health outcomes, and compromised mission objectives.

image

To address this hazard, methods for monitoring behavioral health and adapting/refining various tools and technologies for use in the spaceflight environment are being developed to detect and treat early risk factors. Research is also being conducted in workload and performance, light therapy for circadian alignment or internal clock alignment, and team cohesion.

image

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including isolation and confinement. To learn more, and find out what the Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight” website. Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan further dives into the threat of isolation and confinement with Tom Williams, a NASA Human Factors and Behavior Performance Element Scientist at the Johnson Space Center. 

image

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Space Radiation: Hazard of Stealth

A human journey to Mars, at first glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to the Red Planet from fiction to fact, our Human Research Program has organized hazards astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

image

The first hazard of a human mission to Mars is also the most difficult to visualize because, well, space radiation is invisible to the human eye. Radiation is not only stealthy, but considered one of the most menacing of the five hazards.

image
image
image

Above Earth’s natural protection, radiation exposure increases cancer risk, damages the central nervous system, can alter cognitive function, reduce motor function and prompt behavioral changes. To learn what can happen above low-Earth orbit, we study how radiation affects biological samples using a ground-based research laboratory.

image
image

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five known hazards of spaceflight, including radiation. To learn more, and find out what our Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight” website or check out this week’s episode of “Houston We Have a Podcast,” in which our host Gary Jordan further dives into the threat of radiation with Zarana Patel, a radiation lead scientist at the Johnson Space Center.

image

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Get to Know the 9 Astronauts Set to #LaunchAme…

Our Commercial Crew Program is
working with the American aerospace industry to develop and operate a
new generation of spacecraft to carry astronauts

to and from low-Earth orbit!

As we prepare to launch humans from American soil for the first time since the final space shuttle mission in 2011, get to know the astronauts who will fly with Boeing and SpaceX

as members of our commercial crew!

Bob
Behnken

image

Bob Behnken

served as Chief of the NASA Astronaut Office from July 2012 to July
2015, where he was responsible for flight assignments, mission preparation, on-orbit
support of International Space Station crews and organization of astronaut
office support for future launch vehicles. Learn more about Bob

Eric Boe

image

Eric
Boe first dreamed of being an astronaut at age 5 after his parents woke him up to
watch Neil Armstrong take his first steps onto the lunar surface. Learn more
about Eric
.

 Josh
Cassada 

image

Josh Cassada  holds a Master of Arts Degree and a Doctorate in Physics with a
specialty in high energy particle physics from the University of Rochester, in
Rochester, New York. He was selected as a NASA astronaut in 2013, and his first
spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial Crew Program. Learn more about
Josh
.

Chris Ferguson

image

Chris
Ferguson served as a Navy pilot before becoming a NASA astronaut, and was
commander aboard Atlantis for the final space shuttle flight, as part of the
same crew as Doug Hurley. He retired from NASA in 2011 and has been an integral
part of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner program. Learn more about Chris

Victor
Glover

image

Victor Glover was selected as a NASA astronaut in 2013 while working as a Legislative Fellow in the United States Senate. His first spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial Crew Program. Learn more about Victor. 

Mike
Hopkins

image

Mike Hopkins

was a top flight test engineer at the United States Air Force Test
Pilot School. He also studied political science at the Università degli Studi
di Parma in Parma, Italy, in 2005, and became a NASA astronaut in 2009. Learn
more about Mike
.

Doug Hurley

image

In
2009, Doug Hurley was one of the record-breaking 13 people living on the space
station at the same time. In 2011, he served as the pilot on Atlantis during the
final space shuttle mission, delivering supplies and spare parts to the
International Space Station. Now, he will be one of the first people to launch
from the U.S. since that last shuttle mission. Learn more about Doug.

Nicole Mann

image

Nicole
Mann is a Naval Aviator and a test pilot in the F/A-18 Hornet. She was selected
as a NASA astronaut in 2013, and her first spaceflight will be as part of the Commercial
Crew Program. Learn more about Nicole.

Suni
Williams 

image

Suni Williams

has completed 7 spacewalks, totaling 50 hours and 40 minutes. She’s
also known for running. In April 2007, Suni ran the first marathon in space,
the Boston Marathon, in 4 hours and 24 minutes. Learn more about Suni.

Boeing and SpaceX are scheduled to complete their crew flight tests in mid-2019 and April 2019, respectively. Once enabled, commercial transportation to and from the
International Space Station will empower more station use, more research time and more
opportunities to understand and overcome the challenges of living in space, which is critical for us to create a sustainable
presence on the Moon and carry out missions deeper into the solar system, including Mars! 

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

What’s Up For August 2018?

The summer Perseids are here! 

image

The Perseid meteor shower is the best of the year! It peaks on a Moonless summer night from 4 p.m. EST on August 12 until 4 a.m. EST on August 13.

image

Because the new Moon falls near the peak night, the days before and after the peak will also provide nice, dark skies. Your best window of observation is from a few hours after twilight until dawn, on the days surrounding the peak.

image

Unlike most meteor showers, which have a short peak of high meteor rates, the Perseids have a very broad peak, as Earth takes more than three weeks to plow through the wide trail of cometary dust from comet Swift-Tuttle.

image

The Perseids appear to radiate from the constellation Perseus, visible in the northern sky soon after sunset this time of year. Observers in mid-northern latitudes will have the best views.

image

You should be able to see some meteors from July 17 to August 24, with the rates increasing during the weeks before August 12 and decreasing after August 13.

image

Observers should be able to see between 60 and 70 per hour at the peak. Remember, you don’t have to look directly at the constellation to see them. You can look anywhere you want to-even directly overhead.

image

Meteor showers like the Perseids are caused by streams of meteoroids hitting Earth’s atmosphere. The particles were once part of their parent comet-or, in some cases, from an asteroid.

image

The parade of planets Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars–and the Milky Way continue to grace the evening sky, keeping you and the mosquitoes company while you hunt for meteors.

image

Watch the full What’s Up for August Video: 

There are so many sights to see in the sky. To stay informed, subscribe to our What’s Up video series on Facebook.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

What’s a Blood Moon? And Other Lunar Eclipse Q…

Tonight, Australians, Africans, Europeans, Asians and South Americans will have the opportunity to see the longest lunar eclipse of the century. Sorry North America. 

Lunar eclipses occur about 2-4 times per year, when the Moon passes into the Earth’s shadow. In order to see a lunar eclipse, you must be on the night side of the Earth, facing the Moon, when the Earth passes in between the Moon and the Sun. Need help visualizing this? Here you go:

What’s the difference between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse?

An easy way to remember the difference between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse is that the word ‘eclipse’ refers to the object that is being obscured. During a solar eclipse, the Moon blocks the Sun from view. During a lunar eclipse, the Earth’s shadow obscures the Moon.

Why does the Moon turn red?  

You may have heard the term ‘Blood Moon’ for a lunar eclipse. When the Moon passes into the Earth’s shadow, it turns red. This happens for the exact same reason that our sunrises and sunsets here on Earth are brilliant shades of pinks and oranges. During a lunar eclipse, the only light reaching the Moon passes through the Earth’s atmosphere. The bluer, shorter wavelength light scatters and the longer wavelength red light passes through and makes it to the Moon.

What science can we learn from a lunar eclipse?

“During a lunar eclipse, the temperature swing is so dramatic that it’s as if the surface of the Moon goes from being in an oven to being in a freezer in just a few hours,” said Noah Petro, project scientist for our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, at our Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

image

The Diviner team from LRO measures temperature changes on the Moon through their instrument on the spacecraft as well as through a thermal camera on Earth. How quickly or slowly the lunar surface loses heat helps scientists determine characteristics of lunar material, including its composition and physical properties.

When is the next lunar eclipse?

North Americans, don’t worry. If skies are clear, you can see the next lunar eclipse on January 21, 2019. The eclipse will be visible to North Americans, South Americans, and most of Africa and Europe.

image

To keep an eye on the Moon with us check out nasa.gov/moon or follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

For scientists watching the Red Planet from ou…

For scientists watching the Red Planet from our orbiters, the past month has been a windfall. “Global” dust storms, where a runaway series of storms create a dust cloud so large they envelop the planet, only appear every six to eight years (that’s 3-4 Mars years). Scientists still don’t understand why or how exactly these storms form and evolve.

Read the full story HERE

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.  

What’s Up – July 2018

What’s Up for July?

Mars is closest to Earth since 2003!

image

July’s night skies feature Mars opposition on the 27th, when Mars, Earth, and the Sun all line up, and Mars’ closest approach to Earth since 2003 on the 31st. 

image

If you’ve been sky watching for 15 years or more, then you’ll remember August 2003, when Mars approached closer to Earth than it had for thousands of years.

image

It was a very small percentage closer, but not so much that it was as big as the moon as some claimed.   

image

Astronomy clubs everywhere had long lines of people looking through their telescopes at the red planet, and they will again this month!

image

 If you are new to stargazing, this month and next will be a great time to check out Mars. 

image

Through a telescope, you should be able to make out some of the light and dark features, and sometimes polar ice. Right now, though, a huge Martian dust storm is obscuring many features, and less planetary detail is visible.

image

July 27th is Mars opposition, when Mars, Earth, and the Sun all line up, with Earth directly in the middle.

image

A few days later on July 31st is Mars’ closest approach. That’s when Mars and Earth are nearest to each other in their orbits around the Sun. Although there will be a lot of news focusing on one or the other of these two dates, Mars will be visible for many months.

image

By the end of July, Mars will be visible at sunset.

image

But the best time to view it is several hours after sunset, when Mars will appear higher in the sky.

image

Mars will still be visible after July and August, but each month it will shrink in apparent size as it travels farther from Earth in its orbit around the Sun.

image

On July 27th a total lunar eclipse will be visible in Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe and South America.

image

For those viewers, Mars will be right next to the eclipsing moon!

image

Next month will feature August’s summer Perseids. It’s not too soon to plan a dark sky getaway for the most popular meteor shower of the year! 

Watch the full What’s Up for July Video:

There are so many
sights to see in the sky. To stay informed, subscribe to our What’s Up video
series on Facebook
.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com